What are some careers in Astronomy, and what classes should I take for it in college?

I got very interested in Astronomy (while looking at the meteor shower) so I started thinking about astronomy as a career option, but I want to know what classes I should take in my last 2 years of High School and also later for college. I mainly want to know about what college classes I should take.

There really aren’t any careers in astronomy if you don’t have a PhD, so you’re going to be in college for a long time. Take all the math and science you can while in high school – it would really help if you could take calculus your senior year so you can start calculus-based physics your first semester of college. You’d want to major in physics in college, take classes in math, computer science, and astronomy, and spend your summers doing research projects with professors to prepare for graduate school and a job doing astronomy. Grad school is another 4-8 years after the bachelors.

How to Buy a Telescope : Telescope Buying Guide: Composite Telescopes

Composite telescopes have greater focal lengths and more compact designs than standard telescopes. Find out how composite telescopes differ from other telescopes in this free video on home astronomy from a telescope salesperson.

Expert: Jesse Sturgeon
Bio: Jesse Sturgeon has served as a sales and customer service representative for Anacortes Telescope in Anacortes, Wash. for several years. He enjoys introducing people to the science & art of astronomy.
Filmmaker: Curtis Enlow

Duration : 0:2:16

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How did Newton’s work link physics and astronomy?

I know he explained gravity but I don’t understand how Newton’s work linked physics and astronomy? Thanks in advance

Here’s the answer in Newton’s own words (from the introduction of Book 3 of his "Principia"). Slightly re-written from a published translation of Newton’s original Latin:

Rules of Reasoning in Science:

Rule 1: We are to admit no more causes of natural things, than those that are both relevant and sufficient to explain them.

Rule 2: Therefore, to the same natural effects, we must so far as possible assign the same causes.

Rule 3: The properties of objects which are found to belong to all the objects within the reach of our experiments, are to be assumed to be universal properties of all objects in the universe.

Those ideas may seem "obvious" today, but they were completely different from ancient Greek and medieval science, which for example assumed that the moon, planets, and stars were made something completely different to any material on earth, with different properties, and moved under the direct control of God and Angels, not according to the same "laws of nature" that applied to objects on earth.

Newton was the first person who explicitly said that the whole universe followed the same laws of motion and gravitation as objects on earth, and he used the most up-to-date data that was available from the newly invented use of telescopes in astronomy to demonstrate that assumption was correct – for example by showing that the orbits of the moons of Jupiter could be explained by the same law of gravitation that applied on earth and to earth’s moon.

Of course Newton got some of the details completely wrong. For instance he gave as an example of Rule 2: that "light of the sun has the same cause as the light of fires on earth". But making that wrong assumption is much better science than saying the sun shines because God makes it shine (the Bible ) or the sun shines because it is made of a material that is intrinsically shiny, and which doesn’t exist on earth (Aristotle).

Astronomers: What do you love most about astronomy? And advice on how to be a proficient astronomer?

I am a novice to astronomy, and I would like some advice on how to be a more experienced astronomer so I can enjoy it. First of all, I have the desire and intense curiosity to figure out the universe, so I suppose that helps a bit. But any other advice that you would like to give, or advice that you wish you’d have known when you were beginning? Thanks!

Im the same way as you! (or at least i was not too long ago). What i did is i went to astronomy.com and registered in the forums. Theres so many knowledgeable people there who are always asking interesting questions and getting even more interesting answers. As well as watching the universe on the history channel, and anything astronomy related on tv. What intrigues me the most is the potential for finding other earths, as well as other life in our solar system (.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kepler_mission) Read up on anything that interests you on wikipedia, as well as the astronomy forums.

How to Buy a Telescope : Telescope Buying Guide: Refracting Telescopes

A refracting telescope is the most common kind of telescope. Discover the difference between refracting and reflecting telescopes in this free video on home astronomy from a telescope salesperson.

Expert: Jesse Sturgeon
Bio: Jesse Sturgeon has served as a sales and customer service representative for Anacortes Telescope in Anacortes, Wash. for several years. He enjoys introducing people to the science & art of astronomy.
Filmmaker: Curtis Enlow

Duration : 0:3:24

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NASA Astronomy Pictures Of The Day [Week 6/2010]

NASA Astronomy Pictures Of The Day [Week 6/2010]

Please subscribe to:
• http://www.YouTube.com/ScienceMagazine
• http://www.YouTube.com/Best0fScience

► A Sun Halo Over Cambodia
Have you ever seen a halo around the Sun? This fairly common sight occurs when high thin clouds containing millions of tiny ice crystals cover much of the sky. Each ice crystal acts like a miniature lens. Because most of the crystals have a similar elongated hexagonal shape, light entering one crystal face and exiting through the opposing face refracts 22 degrees, which corresponds to … http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap100208.html

► Night Launch of the Space Shuttle Endeavour
Sometimes, the space shuttle launches at night. Pictured above, the space shuttle Endeavour lifted off in yesterday’s early morning hours from Launch Pad 39A in Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA, bound for the International Space Station (ISS). A night launch, useful for reaching the space station easily during some times of the year, frequently creates … http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap100209.html

► M51 Hubble Remix
The 51st entry in Charles Messier’s famous catalog is perhaps the original spiral nebula – a large galaxy with a well defined spiral structure also cataloged as NGC 5194. Over 60,000 light-years across, M51’s spiral arms and dust lanes clearly sweep in front of its companion galaxy (top), NGC 5195. Image data from the Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys has been reprocessed to … http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap091226.html

► Teide Sky Trails
The snow capped Teide volcano is reflected in a pool of water in this nearly symmetric night sky view from the Canary Island Tenerife. Bright north star Polaris stands above the peak in an exposure that also captures the brilliant trail of a polar orbiting Iridium satellite. Of course, with the camera fixed to a tripod, the stars themselves produce concentric trails in long exposures, a reflection of the Earth’s rotation around its axis … http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap100212.html

► Star Cluster M34
This pretty, open cluster of stars, M34, is about the size of the Full Moon on the sky. Easy to appreciate in small telescopes, it lies some 1,800 light-years away in the constellation Perseus. At that distance, M34 physically spans about 15 light-years. Formed at the same time from the same cloud of dust and gas, all the stars of M34 are about 200 million years young. But like any open star cluster … http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap100211.html

► A Force from Empty Space: The Casimir Effect
This tiny ball provides evidence that the universe will expand forever. Measuring slightly over one tenth of a millimeter, the ball moves toward a smooth plate in response to energy fluctuations in the vacuum of empty space. The attraction is known as the Casimir Effect, named for its discoverer, who, 50 years ago, was trying to understand why fluids like mayonnaise move so slowly … http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap061217.html

► Field of Rosette
What surrounds the florid Rosette nebula? To better picture this area of the sky, the famous flowery emission nebula on the far right has been captured recently in a deep and dramatic wide field image that features several other sky highlights. Designated NGC 2237, the center of the Rosette nebula is populated by the bright blue stars of open cluster NGC 2244, whose winds and energetic light are … http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap100214.html

► A Graceful Arc
The graceful arc of the Milky Way begins and ends at two mountain peaks in this solemn night sky panorama. The view was created from a 24 frame mosaic, with exposures tracking Earth and sky separately. In the final composition, northern California’s Mount Lassen was positioned at the left and Mount Shasta at the far right … http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap091225.html

► Sakurajima Volcano with Lightning
Why does a volcanic eruption sometimes create lightning? The Sakurajima volcano in southern Japan was caught erupting early last month. Magma bubbles so hot they glow shoot away as liquid rock bursts through the Earth’s surface from below. The above image is particularly notable, however, for the lightning bolts caught near the volcano’s summit. Why lightning occurs even in … http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap100210.html

► Waterway to Orbit
The 32nd shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-130, left planet Earth on February 8. Its early morning launch to orbit from Kennedy Space Center’s pad 39A followed the long, graceful, eastward arc seen in this two minute time exposure … http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap100213.html

• Text authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP);
• A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC & Michigan Tech. University
• http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/

Duration : 0:2:57

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What magnificatoin are professional telescopes?

I’m talking about the big telescopes at observatories that profession astronomers use. What magnification are those?

Hi. The upper limit of magnification, or resolution, is a function of objective size for ALL telescopes. And the higher the magnification the smaller the field of view. If you need a number then say 250x – 1,000x.

What books and websites should I read to learn more about astronomy?

Title, anything from basic astronomy to quantum mechanics. I know a lot of the basic stuff, but being taught just from things I’ve read online, I’m sure that there is some basic information that I don’t know that is essential to expanding my education on the subject.

It really depends on your math background. To study quantum mechanics, first you need to take calc I and II, linear algebra, differential equations, and a few semester of math for physicists, along with two semesters of intro physics, modern physics, and classical mechanics. If you’re starting at the beginning in astronomy, Frank Shu’s book ‘The Physical Universe’ is a classic but a bit outdated; Carrol & Ostlie’s ‘Modern Astrophysics’ is the standard advanced undergraduate text with some calculus.

NOVA Short | Founders of Modern Astronomy | PBS

http://www.pbs.org/nova/telescope William Herschel often gets the credit, but his sister Caroline was also a pioneer astronomer. For more, watch NOVA’s Hunting the Edge of Space airing April 6 and 13 on PBS. http://www.pbs.org/nova/telescope Hunting the Edge of Space produced for NOVA by Brook Lapping

Duration : 0:4:24

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how is resolution affected by the size of a telescopes mirror or lens?

And What are some reasons for using mirrors rather than lenses in telescopes?

Well, …, The larger the aperture the more you can see. They the following quick and easy experiment:

Close your left eye, form a very small "OK" with your right hand and look through the center hole will your right eye. Take a mental note of everything you can see. Now open the "OK" and look again. You’ll immediately be able to see more. The ability to gather light, NOT MAGNIFICATION, enables you to see more. Thus a 6" refractor can see much much more at lower power than an 80mm (3.1 in) refractor.

We use mirrors more commonly because:
1) Large mirrors are much easier to make
2) There’s a limit to the about of glass that can go into a lens before light can no longer pass through the lens of the lens becomes so large that it breaks from its own weight.
3) It’s much easier to remove chromatic distortion from a mirror than a lense.
4) Mirrors are cheaper to make.

What is a good college to study astronomy?

I am in the 9th grade but I already know I want to be an astronomer when I grow up. Does anyone know any good colleges where you can study astronomy? (Preferably on the west coast)

California Institute of Technology
University of Arizona, Tuscon
UC Berkeley
San Diego State University
University of Washington

Very Large Telescope

In principle, the larger a telescopes mirror, the finer the details it can see. Continuing to increase the size of telescope mirrors is not an easy task, so astronomers have come up with a new technology to see even finer details: interferometry. This observational technique combines the light received by two or more telescopes and allows them to act as a single unit with a mirror diameter equivalent to the distance between the telescopes. Engineers designed the VLT so that it can also be used as an interferometer. Along with the four 8.2-metre Unit Telescopes, four mobile 1.8-metre Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) were included in the overall VLT concept to form the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). The ATs can move between 30 different stations, and at present, the telescopes can form groups of two or three for interferometry.

Duration : 0:5:34

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SOLAR STORMS, a talk with Astronomer Sten Odenwald pt.1.mp4

Part 1 in a series explaining how solar storms impact the Earth. This episode recounts disasters linked to solar storms. Astronomy. NASA. Sun.

Duration : 0:9:16

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Why do radio astronomers place their telescopes in deep valleys?

Why do radio astronomers place their telescopes in deep valleys? &
Why do optical astronomers place their telescopes on top of mountains?

They don’t. Not always. The VLA – the Very Large Array, in New Mexico is on a flat plain. The new Allen array is on a fairly flat plain as well. Radio telescopes aren’t much bothered by atmospheric turbulence. But some frequencies are bothered by water in the air. So, a sub millimeter telescope is being built in the Atacama desert, pretty high up.

Arecibo in Puerto Rico is placed in a deep valley so that the supporting structure doesn’t need to be so big. It’s a cost savings thing, mostly. This is the largest single dish in the world.

Optical astronomers put telescopes on tops of mountains to reduce the amount of air they have to look through. That’s not good enough, so some put their scopes in airplanes (Sofia), balloons (Boomerang), or space (HST, Spitzer, XMM Newton, WMAP, Chandra, Swift, etc.).

Where do i put my scope? Mostly my driveway. It’s not ideal. There’s a street light next to it, and a grocery store with flood lights across the street. The disadvantages are mostly the lights, and noise from cars, and stuff. The advantages are that i can set up in 3 minutes, i don’t need to wait for my eyes to dark adapt, i don’t need a flashlight, and if it’s cold, i can go back inside.

Can I work in astronomy if I graduate in mechanical or computer engineering?

Can I work in astronomy if I graduate in mechanical or computer engineering? Can I do a post-graduation degree or major in astronomy after doing mechanical or computer engineering? Can I get a job which involves space? All help will be highly appreciated!

Yes on both counts. My B.S is in computer engineering and I’ve been in the space industry for over 8 years. There are plenty of mechanical engineers in the space industry as well (same basic education as an aeronautical/aerospace engineer, but not as much focus on fluid dynamics and coordinate reference systems).

Astronomy for Amateurs

http://lgno.me/cJmip0 – http://lgno.me/aNiqPm – During our open mic session at the last Gnomedex, my good friend Derek Miller came up on stage to show off some backyard Astronomy that his Dad has done. Derek reminds us all that you don’t have to work at NASA to get amazing photographs of things found in our solar system. All you need is passion for what you’re looking at, and a telescope! http://twitter.com/penmachine – http://twitter.com/chrispirillo

Duration : 0:2:8

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Very Large Telescope

Every night, all year round, the ESO Very Large Telescope, or VLT, opens its four giant eyes to scrutinise the beautiful southern skies. Each eye is a huge mirror, 8.2 metres in diameter, that gathers the light of the night sky, and reflects it into optical systems that form ultra-sharp images of the Universe. But keeping the VLT’s eyes clear requires each mirror to be cleaned and recoated occasionally, a delicate and complex procedure.

Duration : 0:10:31

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How can I get people to appreciate astronomy more?

I’m in the 6th grade. I love astronomy, but no one else seems to appreciate it. Can you help?

You could join a local astronomy club, or start one at your school (but there’s usually one in most communities). Those guys (and a few gals) usually have some pretty cool telescopes and are happy to teach people about astronomy.

Spitzer Space Telescope: The Musical

A singing NASA supervisor uses song to explain about NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, and how infrared astronomy differs from visible-light telescopes like Hubble. Starring Danny Tieger (“My Universe Revolves Around You”), Buffy Henshaw (“Behind the Scenes: When Galaxies Collide”), and Tom Phillips as Flunky #2.

To view more comedic (but educational!) NASA videos featuring Sean Astin, Felicia Day, Mark Hamill, Linda Hamilton, Dean Stockwell, George Takei, Ed Wasser, Betty White and more, visit:


NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope

Additional imagery sources include:
Hubble Space Telescope
Chandra X-ray Observatory


Spitzer was launched in 2003
The 4th of NASA’s Great Observatories
On an Earth-trailing orbit with its back to the sun
3 eyes to the sky with coolant for one.
Its 66 million miles away
Because the heat from the Earth would affect the display
Were talking sensitive instruments, keep it streaming on course
for its deep space heat-tracing gaze at the Universe

Capturing the heat instead
There is light form the sky that we can’t see
In the darkest parts of the galaxy
With Spitzer’s spectrum
We can detect them

Spitzers greatest gift to the viewing community
s the ability to see through the dust clouds that literally
Block the view of other telescopes
Unless that dust gets busted they stand no hope
Of seeing what we can, Were NASAs greatest addition
But you didnt hear it from me ’cause it aint a competition,
Yeah, were working together, combining forces for the mission
of a better sense of interstellar cosmic composition


Visible light Visible light
We can only see the stars if the stars shine bright
Infrared, (yeah) infrared
Depends on the energy in heat thats shed.

Spitzers pulling pictures like the paparazzi
Though the coolant ran out, so we cant use all three
Weve got notable photos, and even bros know it shows
The secrets of Universe are fully exposed
Like some extrasolar planets, does get you a going
‘Cause the heat from those planets has its own faint glowing
If there are half as many planets around the stars weve found
Its a million times more likely theyve got life spinning ’round
Am I blowing your mind? Are you listening to me?
Were the white coat crew that mapped our galaxy
So youre joining the team, thats hot in the head
Hooked on looking for the cooking bits of orange and red.


Duration : 0:4:55

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Astronomy in the Tetons

Headed south and managed to find a great secluded spot for astro in the Tetons.

Friday 21th Aug 2009
After much thought of whether to head onto Butte or back to Great Falls, Falls won, simply as I new the lay of the land there. I knew there was a walmart which was the first stop to buy a portable hairdryer. Second was onto starbux where I rendered and uploaded another movie. Shortly after midday I started the trek down to Butte. When I got there I was disappointed to find the Sears I was heading to had no auto. Picked up fuel and food and headed on down to Idaho falls. Got there about 6pm and was surprised that their sears was still going. Got an oil change and tyre rotation (up to ca 10k miles). Then onto the pass of the tetons where I hoped to find a nice observing site. I got VERY luck and found a fantastic place. There are two passes between Idaho Falls and Jackson. The first and smaller one was the one I stopped on and was surprised to find a good quality dirt road leading out back (thats great as it got me off the main road, which turned out to have traffic on it throughout the night). Set the scope up and collimated. Jupiter looked good and the seeing, while showing some turbulence was pretty good. By midnight the milkyway formed a glowing arch over the velvety black celestial sphere. I set the camera up firstly on andromeda, then moved to M33, the triffid nebula and M51. After that I was getting tired and so set up the timelapse on Jupiter (taking a frame a second). The tracking was still slipping periodically and I had to somewhat babysit the tracking. The terrain was not good for the night wanders and hunters in that it was open and very still, such that it was impossible to approach without making noise in the dry grass. However one incident got me out of my chair quickly. Initially I heard a sound like something big breathing, but wasnt certain, then a few seconds later something like a large snort a hundred or so meters away. I scanned the surrounding eagerly and purposefully, ready at a second notice to head for the security of the car, but my flashlights revealed nothing and I heard nothing else. Then about 4ish there was a multitude of howling across the valley, the night hunters were at work, and moving around too, I could hear the canine vocalization moving around the tree covered hills opposite. There are wolves in the tetons, and I was alone on a hilltop. Orion rose brilliantly just before dawn, and as the seeing on Jupiter was now terrible I gave it a go, and for only the second time in my life, I captured the horsehead nebula! Also took a brief look at Mars and Venus, but one was rather small, and the other rather bright. By then the sky was lighting up with vibrant pastel colors and I packed up and headed down to the pass carpark where I looked for a place that would get some shade from the firey sun that would soon rise, and I went to sleep just before dawn.

Saturday 22th Aug 2009
Back to Idaho falls and spent day processing piccies of timelapse. Had taken a piccie per second with the webcam, and using registax 20-40 frames gave a very good result. However was it labor intensive. I couldnt figure out any way to automate it (well I could have done, but if its a one off, writing the automation would take longer than just doing in the labor intensive way. The result blew away previous results, but by the time I was finishing up it was dusk in Idaho falls. By chance there was a walmart out back of the starbux so I just went for a wander (I was tired after a day of CPU work) and to my surprise found something that would do the AV record for the plane only 80 bux too! I bought it (last one) but after an hour or so of messing with it in the car worked out that it wouldnt sync up with the feed. Plus it died with loss of signal (same as the HD aiptek). Headed back to the pass but it was seeing (a good thing too as I was not really in any state to do anything). Slept on pass I had done the astro on the night before.

Duration : 0:5:39

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What are the different types of land based telescopes and space telescopes?

I ma doing this for science coursework. I ened it by the the end of this lesson
what are the different types of land based telescopes?
what are the different type sof space telescopes?
please help!

When we observe, we usually observe a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Ground Based Telescopes — Are easy to build, but hindered by the fact that much of the EM spectrum is blocked by the earth’s atmosphere:

Radio Telescopes — Observe Radio Waves. These are the "big dishes out in the desert"
Submilimeter Telescopes — Observe just above radio waves.
Optical Telescopes — These are what live in domes. There are two main types:
     Reflecting Telescopes — Use giant mirrors. These are the only "large" modern telescopes, and are being built with single mirrors as large as 8.6 meters and multiple mirrors as large as 30+m.
     Refracting Telescopes — These use lenses (like a spyglass or binoculars). These have fallen out of favor, as they are hard to build and introduce problems in the incoming light. The largest in the world in only about 40 inches.

Unlike ground based telescopes, space based telescopes can observe all the bands, including those that don’t penetrate the earth’s atmosphere.

Space Based Telescopes:

Radio — None currently deployed
Infrared — Detects "heat" from distant object
Optical — Takes pictures. Example: Hubble. These are all reflectors, there are no (major) space based refractors.
Ultraviolet — Just above the optical band.
X-Ray/Gamma-Ray — These are super high energy particles from stars. They can only be observed from space, as our atmosphere blocks them.

Finally, stretching the definition of telescope, there are super giant tanks of extremely pure water (or other compounds) buried miles under the earth’s surface. These can be used to detect non-electromagnetic radiation (neutrinos). These aren’t telescopes, per se, but they can detect the outpouring of neutrinos from fusion in the hearts of stars.

What are some astronomy projects I could do?

I am going to do a science project for a scholarship and I’m not quite sure what I want to do. I really like Astronomy so I think that would be fun. It can be biology, earth science, or astronomy (anything that’s natural). Do you have any suggestions on a project I could do preferably an astronomy one?

These science fair sites might help:











XMM-Newton Space Telescope

After launch from Kourou, French Guiana on 10 December 1999, the European Space Agency’s X-ray Multi-Mirror satellite is the most powerful X-ray telescope ever placed in orbit. Scientists are sure the mission will help solve many cosmic mysteries, ranging from enigmatic black holes to the formation of galaxies.

Many celestial objects generate X-rays in extremely violent processes. But Earth’s atmosphere blocks out these X-rays, messengers of what occurred in the distant past when stars were born or died, and clues to our future. Only by placing X-ray detectors in space can such sources be detected, pinpointed and studied in detail. XMM-Newton, the largest science satellite ever built in Europe, has an unprecedented sensitivity.

XMM-Newton carries three very advanced X-ray telescopes. They each contain 58 high-precision concentric mirrors, delicately nested to offer the largest collecting area possible to catch the elusive X-rays. These Mirror Modules allow XMM-Newton to detect millions of sources, far more than any previous X-ray mission.

Duration : 0:8:41

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NASA Astronomy Pictures Of The Day [Week 5/2010]

NASA Astronomy Pictures Of The Day [Week 5/2010]

Please subscribe to:
• http://www.YouTube.com/ScienceMagazine
• http://www.YouTube.com/Best0fScience

► Stardust in Perseus
This cosmic expanse of dust, gas, and stars covers close to three degrees on the sky in the heroic constellation Perseus. Right of center in the gorgeous skyscape is the dusty blue reflection nebula NGC 1333, about 1,000 light-years away. At that estimated distance, the field of view is about 50 light-years across. Next to NGC 1333 is the reddish glow of shocked hydrogen gas created by energetic jets and winds from stars in the process of formation.
• http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap100204.html

► Shepherd Moon Prometheus from Cassini
Another moon of Saturn has been imaged in detail by the Cassini spacecraft. Visible in an unprocessed image from 36,000 kilometers away, Prometheus’ 100-km long surface was revealed to have an interesting system of bulges, ridges, and craters. Cassini’s next major targeted flyby is of the moon Rhea.
• http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap100201.html

► Hong Kong Sky
This remarkable scene combines multiple exposures recorded from a waterside perspective in Hong Kong, China. It follows a young crescent Moon, with brilliant planet Jupiter to its left, as they set together in the western sky. Their two luminous trails are faintly paralleled by trails of background stars.
• http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap100206.html

► The Einstein Cross Gravitational Lens
Most galaxies have a single nucleus — does this galaxy have four? The strange answer leads astronomers to conclude that the nucleus of the surrounding galaxy is not even visible in this image. The central cloverleaf is rather light emitted from a background quasar. The gravitational field of the visible foreground galaxy breaks light from this distant quasar into four distinct images. The quasar must be properly aligned behind the center of a massive galaxy for a mirage like this to be evident. The general effect is known as gravitational lensing, and this specific case is known as the Einstein Cross.
• http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/astropix.html

► Mars and a Colorful Lunar Fog Bow
Even from the top of a volcanic crater, this vista was unusual. For one reason, Mars (on the far upper left) was dazzlingly bright when this picture was taken, as it was nearing its brightest time of the entire year.
• http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap100202.html

► P/2010 A2: Unusual Asteroid Tail Implies Powerful Collision
First discovered on ground based LINEAR images, the object appeared unusual enough to investigate further with the Hubble Space Telescope. What Hubble saw indicates that P/2010 A2 is unlike any object ever seen before. At first glance, the object appears to have the tail of a comet. Close inspection, however, shows a 140-meter nucleus offset from the tail center, very unusual structure near the nucleus, and no discernable gas in the tail. Knowing that the object orbits in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, a preliminary hypothesis that appears to explain all of the known clues is that P/2010 A2 is the debris left over from a recent collision between two small asteroids. If true, the collision likely occurred at over 15,000 kilometers per hour — five times the speed of a rifle bullet — and liberated energy in excess of a nuclear bomb.
• http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap100203.html

► Dust Storm on Mars
It’s spring for the northern hemisphere of Mars and spring on Mars usually means dust storms. So the dramatic brown swath of dust (top) marking the otherwise white north polar cap in this picture of the Red Planet is not really surprising.
• http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap100205.html

► The Colors of IC 1795
This colorful cosmic portrait features glowing gas and obscuring dust clouds in IC 1795, a star forming region in the northern constellation Cassiopeia. The nebula’s colors were created by adopting the Hubble false-color palette for mapping narrow emission from oxygen, hydrogen, and sulfur atoms to blue, green and red colors, and further blending the data with images of the region recorded through broadband filters.
• http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap091210.html

► The International Space Station Over the Horizon
The STS-129 crew of the Space Shuttle Atlantis undocked from the International Space Station (ISS) and returned to Earth. As the shuttle departed the space station, they took the above image. The ISS continues to be home for five astronauts of Expedition 21.
• http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap091207.html

Duration : 0:3:29

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Can we see the the Apollo moon mission equipment which was left behind with telescopes from earth?

We have crafts, vehicles and junk there; are any earth based telescopes able to see any of it?

No, the resolution of Earth-based scopes is not sufficient to be able to see those items. We do have photographs of them that were taken by subsequent spacecraft. For example, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter took several photos:


Hubble Space Telescope Directly Observes Exoplanet

Hubblecast 22: Hubble Space Telescope Directly Observes Exoplanet Orbiting Fomalhaut.

The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has discovered an extrasolar planet, for the first time using direct visible-light imaging. The strange world is far-flung from its parent star, is surrounded by a colossal belt of gas and dust, and may even have rings more impressive than Saturn’s.

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– ESA/Hubble (M. Kornmesser & L. L. Christensen)
– Visual design & Editing: Martin Kornmesser
– Animations: Martin Kornmesser & Luis Calçada
– Web Hosting: Leibniz-Rechenzentrum (LRZ)
– Web Technical Support: Lars Holm Nielsen & Raquel Yumi Shida
– Written by: Lee Pullen & Lars Lindberg Christensen
– Host: Dr. J
– Narration: Bob Fosbury
– Cinematography: Peter Rixner
– Music: movetwo
– Footage and photos: A. Fujii, Digitized Sky Survey 2, NASA, ESA, and P. Kalas (University of California, Berkeley). Acknowledgment: Davide De Martin (ESA/Hubble)
– Directed by: Lars Lindberg Christensen

Dr. J is a German astronomer at the ESO. His scientific interests are in cosmology, particularly on galaxy evolution and quasars. Dr. J’s real name is Joe Liske and he has a PhD in astronomy.

Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre
Garching/Munich, Germany
• http://www.eso.org
• http://www.spacetelescope.org
• http://hubblesite.org

Duration : 0:5:2

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The Actual Astronomy of 2012 – Absolutely Amazing! (In HiQ)

All my 2012 essays are here: http://www.infinitelymystical.com/2012-essays.html

Since the Maya calendar and mythology are both based on the underlying astronomy, it can be very helpful to understand this astronomy. This is fun and easy to do as long as we take it a little bit at a time. It won’t take us very long to lay out all the information yet you may find yourself pondering this subject more deeply for quite awhile. For me personally, the more I dug into this material, the more mind-blowing it all became. Perhaps you will have a similar experience.

– Thomas Razzeto

Mystical spirituality for personal and world peace

Duration : 0:9:43

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Celestron Skyscout Personal Planetarium Telescope

Celestron Skyscout Personal Planetarium Telescope

  • Identifies celestial objects with the click of a button
  • Locates over 6,000 stars, planets and constellations from built-in celestial database and provides scientific information for each object
  • Provides comprehensive text and audio descriptions providing history, mythology and other entertaining information for the most popular objects
  • Tonight’s Highlights: A customized list of the 20 best objects to view for your exact date, time and location anywhere in the world
  • Constellation Lessons: if the star you identify or locate is part of a constellation like the Big Dipper, you can actually take a guided tour through all the stars in that constellation and even see an onscreen map of the constellation
  • Built-in Field Guide Includes: Introduction to astronomy: a six part audio lesson on the origin and history of astronomy, Glossary of Terms: text defining popular astronomy terms including planets, comets, galaxies and more, Great Astronomers: text bios on some of the world’s greatest astronomers including Galileo, Einstein and Copernicus, Man Made Space Objects: text description of some of the coolest objects man has sent into space including the International Space Station, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Space Shuttle, Comet Guide: text descriptions about history’s most famous comets including Halley’s Comet and Comet Hale-Bop
  • SD card slot: for optional -Sky Tour- audio presentations that provide hours of entertainment on a variety of topics
  • USB port: allows database to be updated with new objects as they are discovered, comets, etc.
  • Simple enough for all ages: just turn it on and it’s ready to use
  • Built-in Help Menu: includes a quick start instruction guide for using the SkyScout
  • Bring it anywhere: compact and light design makes it easy to carry and durable construction makes it safe for rugged environments
  • Backed by Celestron’s 2-year warranty

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Moon In My Room

Moon In My Room

What’s different about the moon tonight? It’s inside your room! Authentically detailed, Moon In My Room hangs on your wall and shines moonlight just like the real moon. Twelve different phase settings let you match what the real moon looks like outside tonight! Listen to the included audio CD to learn exciting facts about the moon and its unique relationship with planet Earth

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What are the different uses for different types of telescopes?

What are the different uses for different types of telescopes [refracting, reflecting and catadioptric?]

refracting telescopes are used to examine the visible-light region of the electromagnetic spectrum. typical uses include viewing the Moon, other objects of the solar system such as Jupiter and Mars, and double stars

the reflecting telescope is commonly used in astronomy because it is much easier to create a large convex mirror than to create the huge lenses that would be necessary to gather the light to see dim far-away objects

catadioptric telescopes use a combination of curved lenses and mirrors as objectives to collect light. they are good for all-around viewing because they have the attributes of both refractors and reflectors.

Why are more people in & majoring in astronomy now a days at many universities?

Are there new ways for making money in astronomy now a days compared to 10 years ago? Are there new laws in physics that may be presented to the public? The US is planning to send a robot to Venus in the year 2019….

One doesn’t go into astronomy to get rich. You’d better try banker in that case.

But astronomy is interesting. Go outside on a starry night and look with binoculars at Jupiter, the Moon or the Pleiades. You either get hooked or… well, there must be other interesting jobs too. If you like stuffy offices…

Hubble’s Successor: The James Webb Space Telescope

Science@ESA (Episode 4): Following The Redshift (Part 2) – Hubble’s Successor: The James Webb Space Telescope.

In this fourth episode of the Science@ESA vodcast series Rebecca Barnes will identify some of the key discoveries achieved with the famous Hubble Space Telescope, look at the concept of redshift, and meet a new telescope that will be used to uncover the early Universe.

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Named in 2002 in honour of NASA’s administrator during the Apollo programme, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission is a collaborative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency.

JWST will address many of the outstanding issues of modern astronomy related to the ‘Early Universe’ and is expected to yield scientific breakthroughs as did its predecessor, the Hubble Space Telescope. JWST will be a general-purpose observatory with a suite of astronomical infrared-sensitive instruments.

Compared to existing or planned observatories, JWST will have the unique advantage of combining superb image quality throughout a wide wavelength range, a wide field of view and unparalleled photon sensitivity due to its 6.5-metre diameter telescope primary mirror.


The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a planned infrared space observatory, the partial successor to the aging Hubble Space Telescope. The JWST will not be a complete successor, because it will not be sensitive to all of the light wavelengths that Hubble can see.

The main scientific goal is to observe the most distant objects in the universe, those beyond the reach of either ground based instruments or the Hubble. The JWST project is a NASA-led international collaboration with contributors in fifteen nations, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).

Originally called the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), it was renamed in 2002 after NASA’s second administrator, James E. Webb (1906-1992). Webb had headed NASA from the beginning of the Kennedy administration through the Johnson administration (1961-68), thus overseeing all the manned launches in the Mercury through Gemini programs, until just before the first manned Apollo flight.

Current plans call for the telescope to be launched on an Ariane 5 rocket in June 2014, on a five-year mission (10 year goal). The JWST will reside in solar orbit near the Sun-Earth L2 point, which is on a line passing from the Sun to the Earth, but about 1.5 million km farther away from the Sun than is the Earth.

This position, which moves around the Sun in exact orbital synchrony with the Earth, will allow JWST to shield itself from infrared from both Sun and Earth, by using a single radiation shield positioned between the telescope and the Sun-Earth direction.


Duration : 0:6:42

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Ancient Astronomy

Ancient Astronomy – Best Of Carl Sagan’s Cosmos (Part 17)

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• http://www.youtube.com/SagansCosmos
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1) 10 Years After: Carl Sagan & Ann Druyan Reflect:

2) Lost Between Immensity And Eternity:

3) The Realm Of The Galaxies:

4) Our Galaxy, The Milky Way:

5) Our Solar System:

6) Eratosthenes And The Round Earth Model:

7) The Library Of Alexandria:

8) A Short History Of The Universe:

9) Artificial And Natural Selection:

10) The Cosmic Year:

11) Tree Of Life – 4 Billion Years Of Evolution:

12) The Miracle Of Life:

13) DNA – The Common Basis Of Life:

14) Abiogenesis The Origin Of Life:

15) Astronomy vs Astrology:

16) Pictures In The Sky:

17) Ancient Astronomy:

18) Triumph Of Modern Science Over Medieval Superstition:

19) The Mysterious Tonguska Event:

Carl Edward Sagan, Ph.D. (1934-1996) was an American astronomer, astrochemist, author, and highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics and other natural sciences. He pioneered exobiology and promoted the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI).

He is world-famous for writing popular science books and for co-writing and presenting the award-winning 1980 television series “Cosmos: A Personal Voyage”, which has been seen by more than 600 million people in over 60 countries, making it the most widely watched PBS program in history.

A book to accompany the program was also published. He also wrote the novel “Contact”, the basis for the 1997 Robert Zemecki’s film of the same name starring Jodie Foster.

During his lifetime, Sagan published more than 600 scientific papers and popular articles and was author, co-author, or editor of more than 20 books. In his works, he frequently advocated skeptical inquiry, secular humanism, and the scientific method.


Duration : 0:8:58

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Stars, Planets, Forces – Set 11

Stars, Planets, Forces - Set 11

Science & Discovery Toy – YOUNG SCIENTISTS EXPLORE THE SOLAR SYSTEM! Study the stars with a star fact book, make a constellation box, design a telescope, and use bouncy balls and planet facts to create a solar system mobile that will enlighten any room. Finish this set with the study of forces, gravity, momentum, and Newtons three laws of motion. A great introduction to astronomy! For ages 9 – 12.Award Winner:Dr. Toy 100 Best Children’s Products The National Parenting Center Seal of Approval Learning Magazine Teachers’ Choice Award – Stars, Planets, Forces – Set 11

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what are the advantages and disadvantages of using radio telescopes and probes?

what are the advantages and disadvantages of using radio telescopes and probes to search for life in the universe?

How are radio waves used to detect objects in space?

They are less expensive that actually sending astronauts.
They can detect elements that light telescopes can’t.
Radio waves indicate a lot of tel-tale things that may indicate the possibility of life on those other heavenly bodies.


We can’t be sure until we get there…or it gets here.
It’s a tricky and sometimes high-maintinance thing to keep these telescopes and/or probes up there doing there thing.

What are some recent discoveries made in astronomy?

I wanted to know some of the recent discoveries made in astronomy, to see which was is the most interesting to me.

"Most massive black hole found in galaxy M87"

"Red giant star Betelgeuse in constellation Orion mysteriously shrinking"

"Radio telescope images reveal planet-forming disk orbiting twin suns"

You can find the latest news on the Astronomy.com website, or you can get the news sent as a Newsletter (as I copied the headlines and links from), on the website.

Bad Astronomy: Hubble’s Hotties

Reissued in HD. Bad Astronomer Phil Plait explores his favorite images from the early days of Hubble. Visit Phil on http://www.badastronomy.com. His amazing book “Death from the Skies” is now available in paperback via Amazon.com.

Duration : 0:5:7

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Bushnell 78-8850 Telescope

Bushnell 78-8850 Telescope
NorthStar telescopes offer amateur astronomers state-of-the-art computer-driven location and tracking capability with simple, push-button control. With a built-in data base of 20, 000 celestial objects, you simply call up your target on the hand-held control module, enter a simple “Go To” command and the NorthStar computer does the rest. Once locked on, tracking the object for prolonged viewing is automatic. Innovative RVO (Real Voice Output) feature provides a fun, interactive way to explore the night sky. The remote, hand-held control module features red, backlit push buttons and a red, illuminated LCD read-out for easy viewing without impairing your night vision. The telescopes also feature new 1x wide-angle, red dot finder scope. Additional features include a quick-release tripod and accessory tray for fast, easy assembly.

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