Snap Circuits 300-in-1 by Elenco Electronics

Snap Circuits 300-in-1 by Elenco Electronics

Prepare to engineer over 300 exciting, useful electronic gadgets & play lively electronic games with Electronic Snap Circuits! This kit features a valuable collection of materials! The colorful and easy-to-follow format of the instruction manual makes circuit assembly stress-free and fun. All parts are mounted on plastic modules and snap together with ease. Leave the tools in the garage-everything you need for your electronics learning adventure is included. With Electronic Snap Circuits your understanding of electronics is a SNAP! Literally Over 300 Projects. Electronic Snap Circuits contains over 60 parts. A partial list follows: Base Grid (11 inches x 7.7 inches), Snap Wires, Whistle Chip, Slide Switch, Press Switch, Photoresistor, Red Light Emitting Diode (LED), 2.5 V Lamp Socket, 3.2 V Bulb (3.2V, 0.2A), Battery Holder, Speaker, Music Integrated Circuit, Space War Integrated Circuit, Motor Fan, Resistor, Jumper Wire (Black), Jumper Wire (Red), Have Fun Learning all about Electronics! Over 60 Easy to Identify, Color-Coded Parts Projects Go Together with Ease Create Your Own Exciting Experiments & Games 4 “AA” Batteries Required (Not Included) No Tools Required Recommended Age: 8 years and up Manufacturer: Elenco Electronics, Inc.

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How is our astronomy that we know today related to the ancient greek one (with gods and rulers)?

How did their mythology influence our astronomy today? Why were gods in the sky invented, to have people follow a rulers lead, is any of that documented (scholarly, not just an opinion)?
But how did they know which planets are bigger than earth and where is that documented? I need to cite things.

Greeks weren’t actually very far off. They believed Gods lived int he sky, were bigger etc. i.e. Jupiter a massive planet compared to that of our own. Jupiter a.k.a. Zeus THe king of the gods and the strongest and the most influential entity in the greek mythology. examples like this one is found through out the greek mythology, when compared to the known universe.

Hubble Space Telescope – Better Than Ever!

The Hubble Space Telescope Is Back – Better Than Ever! The Final Servicing Mission.

“Improved Hubble Shows Evidence of Dark Matter”
• http://www.youtube.com/user/tdarnell#play/uploads/2/3wluv08tDhU [HD]
• http://www.deepastronomy.com/

“When Hubble Opened its New Eyes”
• http://www.youtube.com/AndromedasWake
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9bytNgT7l8k&fmt=22 [HD]

“The Hubble Space Telescope – Rebirth of an Icon (Hubblecast 30)”
• http://www.youtube.com/ESOcast
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hjy7YSIH-GI&fmt=22 [HD]


Subscribe to Science & Reason:
• http://www.youtube.com/Best0fScience
• http://www.youtube.com/SagansCosmos
• http://www.youtube.com/FFreeThinker
• http://www.youtube.com/FFreeThinker2

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was carried into orbit by the space shuttle in April 1990. It is named after the American astronomer Edwin Hubble. Although not the first space telescope, the Hubble is one of the largest and most versatile, and is well-known as both a vital research tool and a public relations boon for astronomy.

The HST is a collaboration between NASA and the European Space Agency, and is one of NASA’s Great Observatories, along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope.

Space telescopes were proposed as early as 1923. The Hubble was funded in the 1970s, with a proposed launch in 1983, but the project was beset by technical delays, budget problems, and the Challenger disaster. When finally launched in 1990, scientists found that the main mirror had been ground incorrectly, severely compromising the telescope’s capabilities.

However, after a servicing mission in 1993, the telescope was restored to its intended quality. Hubble’s orbit outside the distortion of Earth’s atmosphere allows it to take extremely sharp images with almost no background light. Hubble’s Ultra Deep Field image, for instance, is the most detailed visible-light image ever made of the universe’s most distant objects. Many Hubble observations have led to breakthroughs in astrophysics, such as accurately determining the rate of expansion of the universe.

The Hubble is the only telescope ever designed to be serviced in space by astronauts. There have been five servicing missions, the last occurring in May 2009. Servicing Mission 1 took place in December 1993 when Hubble’s imaging flaw was corrected. Servicing missions 2, 3A, and 3B repaired various sub-systems and replaced many of the observing instruments with more modern and capable versions.

However, following the 2003 Space Shuttle Columbia accident, the fifth servicing mission was canceled on safety grounds. After spirited public discussion, NASA reconsidered this decision, and administrator Mike Griffin approved one final Hubble servicing mission. STS-125 was launched in May 2009, and installed two new instruments and made numerous repairs.

The latest servicing should allow the telescope to function until at least 2014, when its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), is due to be launched. The JWST will be far superior to Hubble for many astronomical research programs, but will only observe in infrared, so it will complement (not replace) Hubble’s ability to observe in the visible and ultraviolet parts of the spectrum.

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubble_Space_Telescope
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Duration : 0:6:46

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Astronomy Night At The White House

President Obama kicked off Astronomy Night on the South Lawn of the White House. Some 150 middle school students from the Washington area got to learn more about their universe using more than 20 telescopes provided by NASA and other organizations. They observed Jupiter, the moon and selected stars. Other activities included science presentations with samples of meteorites and moon rocks. NASA’s Museum Alliance, a consortium of museums, science centers and planetariums conducted activities worldwide to coincide with the White House event. Astronomy Night helped note the International Year of Astronomy, a global celebration of contributions to society and culture in the 400 years since Galileo first used a telescope.

Duration : 0:11:11

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Telescope Amnesty, Jan 2009

Our second Telescope Amnesty event, where visitors met members of Astronomy Societies who gave advice on how to use their telescopes/binoculars and how to get involved in astronomy as an amateur.

The evening was rounded off by a special planetarium show by Pete Lawrence & Ninian Boyle of the BBC Sky at Night team.

Thanks to our co-hosts HantsAstro, and also to Cody Astronomy Society, Hampshire Astronomical Group and Reading Astronomical Society. This event was part of International Year of Astronomy 2009. The film was made by Martin Sabin-Smith (www.workingimage.co.uk), unfortunately YouTube has messed up the quality during conversion but we hope you enjoy it.

Duration : 0:7:49

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Bushnell 78-9570 Telescope

Bushnell 78-9570 Telescope
Voyager telescopes offer impressive optical quality and precise mechanical construction resulting in the clearest view of the most distant objects in the sky. Loaded with innovative features – such as zoom eyepiece, patented Penta mirror technology and rotary power turret – ruggedly constructed and convenient to use, there is no better choice when it comes to balancing performance with affordable price.

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Educational Insights Hows and Whys of Science Kit

Educational Insights Hows and Whys of Science Kit

Uncover the mysteries of the world! From astronomy to geomagnetics, biology to ecology, the Hows and Whys of Science Kit has everything a curious young scientist needs to explore the workings of the universe! Junior scientists learn how to conduct experiments like the professionals with special laboratory instruments and materials. Includes A telescope Beaker Compass Test tubes Optical prism Bright LEDs Bug viewer Generator flashlight Rock samples And more The beautifully illustrated, full color step by step guide includes hundreds of experiments and scientific reports explaining many of Earth’s mysterious secrets. Experiment with wind, thunder, magnetism, light, electronics and water. Explore the earth and sky in detail from the small micro organisms in water to the moon above. Gain an understanding of real scientific phenomena and learn how to draw conclusions from experiments just like real scientists do! Requires 3 AA batteries, not included. Grades 3+ Ages 8+

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Educational Insights Hows and Whys of Science Kit

Educational Insights Hows and Whys of Science Kit

Uncover the mysteries of the world! From astronomy to geomagnetics, biology to ecology, the Hows and Whys of Science Kit has everything a curious young scientist needs to explore the workings of the universe! Junior scientists learn how to conduct experiments like the professionals with special laboratory instruments and materials. Includes A telescope Beaker Compass Test tubes Optical prism Bright LEDs Bug viewer Generator flashlight Rock samples And more The beautifully illustrated, full color step by step guide includes hundreds of experiments and scientific reports explaining many of Earth’s mysterious secrets. Experiment with wind, thunder, magnetism, light, electronics and water. Explore the earth and sky in detail from the small micro organisms in water to the moon above. Gain an understanding of real scientific phenomena and learn how to draw conclusions from experiments just like real scientists do! Requires 3 AA batteries, not included. Grades 3+ Ages 8+

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How did telescopes helped disprove the flat earth belief?

I know Galileo wasn’t the first person to say the world was round, but I need help find sites for a work cited page on how he and his telescopes help disprove that the world was flat

Galileo’s discovery wasn’t that the earth wasn’t flat, rather it caused issues with the earth being the center of the universe. Seeing the moons of Jupiter going around Jupiter changed the concept forever that the earth was the center of everything.

Why are telescopes located in these positions?

Telescopes are often found high upon mountains when looking upon cities. The Hubble space telescope is located above the earth, looking upon us. Why are telescopes located in these positions? Answer must have something to do with reflection/refraction. Please help. Thanks.

The altitude does mean there is a little less atmosphere to look thru but other factors include light pollution and air pollution, especially particlulates that block and scatter light, and just the variation in the atmosphere. The density of our air does vary due to temperature and humidity so the atmosphere acts as a lens (this is where refraction enters the equation).

They have developed technology that "corrects" the telescope optics for variations created by the atmosphere. This correction is not 100% effective (it helps dramatically but…) so there is still significant advantages for putting a telescope in space. In space, you can observe day and night, there is very little dust that will collect on the mirror (as there is on earth), there is no air pollution, there is no light pollution (except from the sun, distant stars, and black holes which happen to be between you and what you want to look at), and there is no atmosphere to act as a lens.

One note, the Hubble does not look upon us. The Hubble is designed for looking at things a lot farther away than earth. I don’t think the Hubble’s manuvering thrusters could keep the Hubble pointed at a single spot on earth long enough to get a good picture.

Hope this helps

What kind of place is usually the best place for astronomy?

So i bought a decent binocular and want to start astronomy, but whereever i go there is some sort of a light source like a lamppost. What place is usually the darkest?

as far away from the lights as you can get.

If you have a school nearby you can go out into the middle of the athletic field and that will help (provided the lights aren’t on).

The top of a building gets you above a lot of the street-level glow.

By the way, which kind of binocs did you wind up getting?

Visit my ‘resources’ page below for some links to free downloadable star atlases and planispheres. I’ve also got a list of binocular objects and the Astronomy League’s page for the binocular Messier challenge.

What college should I attend to major in physics and astronomy?

I live in Colorado, Denver-Aurora. But i want to major in Astronomy and/or Astro physics.

DO i need to major in physics to take astrophysics?
What colleges are the best?
Plz Thank You.

UC Boulder would be a good choice nearby. Keep in mind there aren’t really any jobs in astronomy if you don’t have a PhD in the subject, and if you want to get a PhD in astronomy or astrophysics, you should be majoring in physics – astronomy, math, and computer science courses are useful/necessary as well, but the physics major is essential for applying to grad schools. Astrophysics majors typically do NOT require you to take as much physics as you will need.

Other great schools are the ivies, Berkeley, CalTech, MIT, U Arizona, UT Austin, U Chicago, UCLA, UC Santa Cruz, Ohio State, U Michigan, Rice, U Washington, U Wisconsin, U Virginia, UMass Amherst, and many more.

How do I choose from the variety of telescopes?

I want to add stargazing to my evening hobbies. What budget telescopes can I buy so I can view other planets in our solar system.. or far away stars?

Without question, the best budget telescope is not a telescope at all but a pair of decent binoculars. I was in amateur astronomy for 15 years or more before I could afford to buy a decent telescope – so I used binoculars. If you buy a cheap telescope, you will see the following:

1. The moon – it will be fuzzy and will jiggle around a lot.
2. The planets will look like blobs with no detail.
3. Deep sky objects will be impossible to find. If you do get a momentary glimpse, the mount will not allow you to keep it centered or even still in the eyepiece.

In short, this is about the best way for you to get so frustrated that you will chuck the entire hobby, and that would be sad.

I would highly recommend that you go to a dealer you trust, or check out Oriontelescopes.com on the internet. A decent tripod is also a good idea. Once you purchase these, go to an astronomy club meeting, buy a book or two, and spend some time learning the night sky. This will be satisfying in itself. Plus if you go to a club gathering, you will be able to look through 20 or 30 scopes at different objects and use the experience to decide what you really want in a scope, once you can afford to buy one.

What things would an astronomy hobbyist like to see in a website about astronomy and astronomy products?

I’m working on a new website about astronomy and astronomy related products, and would really like to know what would make astronomy hobbyists want to go to the site. Any thoughts and suggestions are very welcome. Thanks

Develop and market a good cloud filter. THAT would get all of us to go to that site!

You asked!

I like to know what will be out in the sky when I go so I like notice of events like passes of the ISS or iridium flares and stuff like that. I like to know if there are any comets visible –you know, the out of the ordinary stuff. On one group we were just told how some satelites were passing between uranus and us and how cool they looked going across the surface of uranus.

Well in Advance notice though, because I like to go and get set up before dark and I dont get internet out in the field.

What is the best astronomy telescope i can buy for under 1000 dollars?

I do not know too much about astronomy but i would like to see the planets and maybe nebulae. Especially saturn and andromeda. if that is possible as well if anyone could give me the best telescope under 500$ as well as 1000$ and please explain why

There are several different kinds of telescopes and all of them have some excellent features. Refractors and Reflectors, plus Schmidt-Cassegrain, APO refractors, Mac-Cass, and many more. There are also several mounts to chose from and the mounts are just as important, if not even more important, than the scope is. All of the different scopes and mounts have some features that some people like and do not like. No two eyeballs are the same and the perfect scope for one person might be completly wrong for another person.

There is no one scope that is "better" than another —except for the junk scopes out there which are all just a waste of money. Never, ever buy from Walmart, Costco, Target, or any other discount store like that. Junk scopes are flooded into the market from those stores. You will be buying nothing but bad optics and plastic.

If you are new at this, then stay away from anything used from any site. If you don’t know what you are buying and who you are buying from you will most likely be getting someone else’s headache—with no warranty either. Buyer beware you know. Some great deals on used equipment, by people who know how to use and take care of scopes, are out there but if you don’t know what you are doing, you might be spending a lot of money on junk.
______________________________________…
I recomend:

http://oriontelescopes.com/

Orion is the very best for value and for customer service too. I have 2 of their scopes and I will only buy from them from now on. My first scope was a manual controlled scope and I am very glad that it was because it forced me to learn where things are in the night skies. Go-To type scopes can be frustrating to use. If you do not have them aligned exactly perfect, they do not find the targets. If you are a beginner, you will be frustrated unless you spring for a GPS Go-To. An object locator is just that—it will locate objects for you (must be aligned first) but an object locator is not a tracking motor. It will not keep the scope on the target.

The Orion site has some excellent diagrams and explanations of all types of scopes and mounts.

Things to consider are size–can the user lift and transport the scope to the viewing site easily? Does it fit in your car? If not, then it will gather dust in a closet. I recomend a carrying case too so it is protected in storage and transport. Can the viewer reach all the knobs and buttons? I have a long tube large manual refractor and it is very dificult for me to reach the knobs when I am pointed to Zenith. I am not a tall person.

Take your time in making your decision.

+++ I would like to suggest that you join a local astronomy club or astronomical society BEFORE you spend your money on a scope. There are many different kinds of scopes and what is perfect for one person is not perfect for another. Everyone has their own set of eyeballs and no two are the same. If you join a club, you can attend a few of their star parties and try out members scopes to see what works best for YOU, before you buy a scope. The members can also help you when you get your scope and show you how to get the most out of your new scope as well as to help teach you where the treasures in the sky are located. Most clubs have loaner scopes and extensive libraries that you can gather more information from too. Most clubs will have monthly membership meetings with informative presentations given by members and by guest speakers. You can really learn a lot from these clubs and an added plus is all the great new freinds you make there too.

Some people will suggest that you purchase binnoculars. Not a bad idea but dont buy anything less than 10×50 and you must have a tripod too or you will not be happy with your astronomical views because they will be too shakey from your movements. Personally, I prefer a scope to binos because if binoculars are not aligned properly at the factory, then you get double images and distortions that cant be fixed. Most of the cheaper binoculars are not properly aligned. That is not as important for terrestial viewing but it is a killer for astronomical viewing. Binos can also be bumped out of alignment and become useless for astronomy.

When you buy go Orion and you wont be disappointed. Don’t try to learn everything all at once or you will be overwhelmed and discouraged. Patience is the key to Astronomy.

You will need a good star chart program too.
http://www.stellarium.org/
This is great freeware that you can download. Tell it where you are and it will tell you what you see. Ask it where something is and it will show you.

I wish you the best!

How can i start a career in astronomy?

Astronomy has always been a hobby for me. Recently I lost my regular job and I am interested in a career in astronomy or cosmology. Any information on how i should proceed and what kind of classes to look into would be greatly appreciated

There really aren’t any jobs in astronomy if you don’t have a PhD in the subject, so get ready for about 10 years of college. Start with a physics major for your bachelors degree – classes in math, astronomy, and computer science are useful/necessary as well, but physics is essential for getting into graduate school. Spend your summers doing research with a professor at your school or other universities or national labs to get some experience for grad school and an idea of what it’s like to do this for a living.

Cosmology is a subfield of astronomy, like planetary science, solar physics, or galactic astronomy. It’s not really a degree itself; go for a physics or astrophysics PhD to do cosmology.

I’m looking for a good illustration to show the difference between reflecting and refracting telescopes.?

I own one of each. I know how they’re different. I am looking for good illustrations to show how they’re different on the inside. I will be teaching a bunch of Cub Scouts all about telescopes, the Solar System, and other Astronomy topics. I will show them my reflecting and refracting telescopes, but I’m looking for diagrams to show the internal components, as well.

I looked at the Orion site. They show many examples, but they’re external photos. I want to see internal photos, diagrams, illustrations, etc. I’m looking for images that I can download, enlarge and print.

Thank you for providing links.

Refractor:
http://members.aol.com/siriusbc/telescopes/image007.jpg

Reflector:
http://members.aol.com/siriusbc/telescopes/image011.jpg

Catadioptric:
http://members.aol.com/siriusbc/telescopes/image014.jpg

The website itself is at http://members.aol.com/siriusbc/telescopes/ts2.htm
but it only seems to load in firefox

Is it hard work to become an Astronomy major?

I am thinking about becoming an Astronomy major but i don’t know in what field i want to do. Any Astronomy majors here?

I work in astrophysics. It’s a great field. Many people don’t appreciate what a privilege it is to think and create for a living. Also, studies show that a research job can add *years* of mental life. Staves off senility, memory loss, etc.

Generally, there are several types of astronomical topics. If you really like math and abstract stuff, you can do theoretical astrophysics. If you just like to be immersed in stuff and never get tired of seeing new things, you can be an observational or survey astronomer. You can do the work from the ground or you can work on observatories in space, depending on what your topic is.

Additionally, there are many phenomena in astrophysics to study (from the Sun to planets to novae to black holes, etc.). The choices can seem intimidating, but think of it this way: with so many options, you can definitely fine-tune your choice to something you know you’ll enjoy.

You really should go around the astronomy department and ask professors about what they do. It can be intimidating (it was for me at least), but if you’re going to be a scientist you’ll need practice in these types of discussions.

Astronomy majors should *definitely* get summer research projects! It really brings you closer to the life of an astronomer, and most of the positions pay so you’ll have a summer job. NASA, for example, has many programs – go to education.nasa.gov

Good luck!

CJ

How does reflection & refraction enable astronomers to build telescopes and how is different for the 6 types?

What is the difference between reflection and refraction. How do these enable astronomers to build telescopes? Do these principles work equally well for all six types of telescopes and how?
(The telescopes built to view each region of the electromagnetic spectrum?)

Hi Reflection is when light bounces off a reflective surface, usually metal coated glass. Refraction is caused by light traveling through a surface at an angle. Steeper angles produce more bending of the light. The rest of your question relates to how well other parts of the spectrum would respond to these properties. Not well I’m afraid. X-rays for instance need an extremely close angle of incidence to reflect. (Look up ‘Chandra’). Radio waves use metal reflectors etc. Hope this helps.

What brands or models of monitors are best for viewing telescopes?

Am interested in starting astronomy and wanted to know what models or makes of monitors are best for viewing when attached to telescopes?

Personal experiences and observations? Thanks!

Generally you use a telescope with an eyepiece. It’s possible to get video hookups that let you view the image on a screen but I think this is far less enjoyable and gives you less flexibility.

What are the best universities for a degree in Astronomy?

I’ve been looking around on different websites and have been getting little help. I’ve gone on visits to different places and they have all given the "well all of our degrees are good" crap. Can anyone give a me a straight forward answer on some universities with good astronomy or astrophysics programs?

Any professional astronomer will need a Ph.D. or at the very least a Master’s. The master’s is probably only going to get you a community college teaching job though. For your bachelors degree, pretty much any school will do, especially if it offers a Ph.D. program. You don’t have top get the Ph.D. at the same school you get the bachelors, but the fact that the school even has a Ph.D. program in astronomy puts it a cut above the others. And when you are there you will find out from the other students and professors and counselors what the best graduate schools are. Cal Tech, MIT, and Harvard come to mind. I believe Yale, UCLA and UT Austin have good programs too. But I haven’t kept up with it, so do your homework, which means don’t just ask here.

Celestron 21049 Telescope

Celestron 21049 Telescope
The Celestron PowerSeeker series of telescopes is designed to give the first-time buyer the perfect combination of quality, value, features and power. Offering exceptional value, these telescopes feature portable yet powerful designs with ample optical performance to excite any newcomer to the world of amateur astronomy.

PRODUCT FEATURES:

Includes two 1.25″ eyepieces;
Includes CD-ROM “The Sky” Astronomy Software;
Easy to assemble 127mm German Equatorial reflector;
Pre-assembled aluminum tripod and accessory tray;
Slow motion controls for smooth tracking;
3x Barlow lens triples the magnifying power of each eyepiece;
FinderScope: 5×24.

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Celestron 21045 Telescope

Celestron 21045 Telescope
The PowerSeekers come in a choice of refractor or reflector, equatorial or altazimuth mount design. The PowerSeekers come with all coated glass optical components with for enhanced image brightness and clarity. The Newtonian reflectors offer larger aperture and greater light gathering power needed to resolve the faint detail of hundreds of deep-sky and other celestial objects.

All PowerSeekers come on either sturdy equatorial mounts for tracking the sky, or collapsible altazimuth mounts suitable for terrestrial viewing as well as astronomical use.

The PowerSeekers come with a full range of eyepieces plus a 3x Barlow lens, allowing an increase in viewing power hundreds of times greater than that of an unaided eye!

The PowerSeekers PS 114 EQ is a great choice for children and families.

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We only have two telescopes on Earth that are devoted to detecting asteroids and comets. H?

Then how would we detect any commets and asteroids in time? Because it’s impossible for two telescopes to look in the right place at the right time all of the time.

There are quite a number of survey telescopes devoted to asteroid searches (and which also find comets.)

The Lincoln Near Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) survey uses 2 1.0 m telescopes of the same design as those used by the US military to track space junk.

The Spacewatch program uses a 0.9 m scope and a 1.8 m scope.

The Catalina Survey uses a 0.68 m Schmidt telescope, its sister the Mt Lemmon Survey uses a 1.5 m telescope and their southern partner the Siding Spring Survey uses a 0.5 m Schmidt telescope.

The Lowell Observatory Near Earth Object Survey (LONEOS) uses a 0.6 m Schmidt telescope.

The Near Earth Asteroid Tracking Survey (NEAT) shares the 1.2 m Palomar Oschin Schmidt telescope with Mike Brown’s deep solar system survey that is finding lots of Kuiper Belt objects.

There’s also the Lulin Survey in China (a 0.4 m RC scope.)

There are also many amateurs with 0.3 to 0.4 m scopes doing asteroid work, even some with larger equipment in the 0.6 to 0.7 m range.

There are also programs that use time on scopes such as the 2 m Faulkes telescopes.

PanSTARRS and LSST are on the drawing boards (well in the case of PanSTARRS there is actually a prototype telescope running now) and would dominate the survey scene should they come on line.

The discovery rate of asteroids has jumped markedly in the last 10 years because of the efforts of these surveys.

What is the main difference between astro physics and astronomy?

I used to think I knew the difference. After studing astro physics I realized it was – or included – everything I thought that astronomy was.
Thanks a lot to whom can answer 🙂 .

I guess astrophysics is all done in the lab on paper or blackboard done to support the imperical data and explain it in terms of Newtonian and Relativistic equations.

Astronomy also includes experimental field work.

The Astrophysicist or physicist if you will. Einstein, postulates based on math and computations and seeing it in their head and comes up with gravity wells and says the light will shift position when it is close to a gravity well.

The astronomer sees this for real during and eclipse and sets up experiements to try and prove it based on the data and as such the astronomer needs to interpret the data provided by the physicist.

That means they BOTH need to know the same math.

Einstein rarely looked throught a telescope and when he did he was probably more like a kid with a 6" cellestion seeing Jupiter for the first time.

Clyde Tombough did the math, from the physics he knew about Neptune, Uranus and postulated where PLUTO might be and then he went out and took pictures through telescopes and used a blink microscope to try and find a star that moved and that would be PLUTO.

So he applied both ASTRO PHYSICS and ASTRONOMY

Astronomy is about NAMES of objects.

Astro physics is about labels.

X Y Z

Astronomy gives these names

Neptune, Pluto, Uranus

The math is the sample.

So ASTRONOMY is APPLIED astrophysics at times.

Celestron 11079-XLT Telescope

Celestron 11079-XLT Telescope
Unparalleled performance, unbeatable value! The Advanced C6-SGT is Celestron’s first new Schmidt-Cassegrain optical system in over a decade. A totally unique aperture size, the C6-S is available in computerized (GT) and non-computerized models. The 6″ Schmidt-Cassegrain features a precision optical system with 1500mm focal length (f/10) and offers 40% more light gathering than a 5″ telescope.

All C6-S models come standard with Celestron’s StarBright XLT coatings at no extra cost.

Mounted on the Advanced GT Series computerized mount, this telescope has some high performance software and hardware features. Operated by the company’s proven NexStar computer control technology the telescope has a 40, 000+ object database with 400 user-definable objects and expanded information on over 200 objects. Custom database lists of all the most famous deep-sky objects by name and catalog number; the most beautiful double, triple and quadruple stars; variable star; solar systems; objects and asterisms.

Using the RS-232 communication port on the hand control, you can control the telescope via a personal computer and the flash upgradeable hand controls allow you to update your telescope’s operating software via the Internet. An autoguider port is also included for astrophotography. No matter at what level you are starting out, this precision instrument will satisfy your needs both visually and photographically.

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Star Theater SE by Uncle Milton

Star Theater SE by Uncle Milton

Star Theater SE by Uncle Milton Planetarium with Interactive Astronomy Software Take a journey into space as you explore the night sky like never before! Watch as your darkened room is transformed into a home planetarium. Project hundreds of stars and constellations on your walls and ceilings. -Projects hundreds of stars, planets and constellations on walls and ceiling -Dome overlay for realistic star projection -Includes interactive Stellarium astronomy software and 45 minute CD guided audio tour of the night sky -Meteor Maker lets kids make realistic streaks across ceiling! -Accurate to season, month, day and hour -Super bright halogen light source -Built in compass -Activity guide -AC adapter jack (adapter not included) -Requires 3 AA and 5 AAA batteries (not included) -Ages 8 and Up Length: 12″   Width: 10″   Height: 7″ Shipping Weight: 3.1 lbs

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How would our knowledge be limited without telescopes?

It is easily argued that the greatest technological breakthrough in Astronomy was the invention of the telescope. How would our knowledge be limited without telescopes?

There where no telescopes in the Mayan era, and they are considered excellent students of the skies. Astronomy dates back to the beggining of earth. Many civilizations based their believes and philosophies in the study of astronomy. So, we can say that, telescope extended, like any other instrument in sciences, the field of studies, but I don’t believe that without it, there will be limitations.

Celestron 52265 Telescope

Celestron 52265 Telescope
The Maksutov optical design is recognized for being a portable design that is easy to use and has a variety of applications, making it an excellent choice for both terrestrial and astronomical usage. This C90 Mak has excellent optics with razor sharp images over a wide field. The C90 Mak features an internal flip mirror design which allows the user to view celestial objects at a 90 degree angle and also corrects the image orientation to view land objects at a 45 degree angle. The full-featured C90 MAK is also rubber covered and completely waterproof. This model features durable black rubber armor for protection, a flip up lens cap for safety, and it comes complete inside its own soft sided carrying case.

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What is approximately the greatest distance out to which it is possible for ground-based telescopes to measure

What is approximately the greatest distance out to which it is possible for ground-based telescopes to measure parallax? Also, why does such a limit on parallax measurements exist?

There are different estimates. Pessimists might say we really can’t do better than about 50 light years reliably. Others may claim two or three hundred. Our ability will increase with more orbiting measuring devices planned in the future.

Parallax works by shooting an angle to a star from two positions which form the bottom two angles on a very long triangle. We use trigonometry to figure out how far away the other vertex of the triangle is. Our ability to do this is limited over long distances. Here’s an example. Suppose you could see and point at some point in California from your position in Maryland. Now you shoot an angle to it. Now you move over a half an inch and shoot another angle. You can see how close these two lines are to being parallel. And it is very difficult to tell where they intersect, or how far off of 90 degrees they are to the 1/2-inch baseline. It is actually about these same proportions that we are trying to measure stars with. The earth’s orbital diameter would be the half inch. Mind boggling that we can do even a fraction of this.